Twelfth quarterly report of the Executive Chairman of the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission in accordance with paragraph 12 of Security Council resolution 1284 (1999), 28 February 2003

02.12.2014. 19:09


1. The present report, which is the twelfth submitted in accordance with paragraph 12 of Security Council resolution 1284 (1999), covers the activities of the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) during the period from 1 December 2002 to 28 February 2003.

2. The period under review has been one of intense activity for the Commission. In Iraq, inspections and monitoring were resumed on 27 November 2002, requiring a rapid build-up of inspection and support staff and the resolution of operational and logistics issues. In New York the analysis of Iraq-s declarations and unresolved disarmament issues went hand in hand with intense planning of inspections and administrative activities.

Briefings and consultations by the Executive Chairman

3. In the period under review, the Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC briefed the Security Council informally on 19 December 2002 and 9 January 2003 on the declaration presented by Iraq on 7 December in response to paragraph 3 of Security Council resolution 1441 (2002), and on the progress of inspections in Iraq and other UNMOVIC activities. In accordance with paragraph 5 of the same resolution, he updated the Council on 27 January on the resumption of inspection activities. He also provided on 14 February, at an open session of the Council, a briefing on UNMOVIC activities.

4. The Executive Chairman and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) visited Baghdad from 19 to 20 January and from 8 to 9 February for talks with representatives of the Government of Iraq. During these visits, they met with Vice-President Taha Yassin Ramadan. In addition, the Executive Chairman met in London with the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and in Paris with the President of France. In Athens, he met with the Foreign Minister of Greece, which currently holds the European Union Presidency. He also visited Brussels and met with senior officials of the European Commission and the European Union. In New York, he had meetings with Prime Ministers, high-level officials of Member States, as well as with Foreign Ministers, and he also briefed visiting parliamentarians and government officials.

5. The Secretary-General and his senior staff were kept informed, on a continuing basis, of the activities of the Commission.

Declaration submitted by Iraq on 7 December 2002

6. Responding to the requirement in paragraph 3 of Security Council resolution 1441 (2002) to provide a "currently accurate, full and complete declaration of all aspects of its programmes to develop chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles, and other delivery systems", on 7 December, Iraq submitted a declaration to UNMOVIC and the IAEA and, through its President, to the Security Council. The declaration, including supporting documents, comprised more than 12,000 pages.

7. On 19 December and again on 9 January, the Executive Chairman, in his informal briefings to the Council, presented an assessment of the information contained in the declaration. UNMOVIC experts have found little new significant information in the part of the declaration relating to proscribed weapons programmes, nor much new supporting documentation or other evidence. New material, on the other hand, was provided concerning non-weapons-related activities during the period from the end of 1998 to the present, especially in the biological field and on missile development.

8. The part that covers biological weapons is, in UNMOVIC-s assessment, essentially a reorganized version of a previous declaration provided by Iraq to the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) in September 1997. In the chemical weapons area, the basis of the current declaration was a declaration submitted by Iraq in 1996 with subsequent updates and explanations. In the missile field, the declaration follows the same format, and has largely the same content as Iraq-s 1996 missile declaration and updates.

9. However, some sections contained new information. In the chemical weapons field, Iraq further explained its account of the material balance of precursors for chemical warfare agents, although it did not settle unresolved issues on this subject.

10. In the missile area, there is a good deal of information regarding Iraq-s activities in the past few years. A series of new projects have been declared that are at various stages of development.

11. As there is little new substantive information in the weapons part of Iraq-s declaration, or new supporting documentation, the issues that were identified as unresolved in the Amorim report (S/1999/356) and in UNSCOM-s report (S/1999/94) remain. In most cases, the issues remain unresolved because there is a lack of supporting evidence. Such supporting evidence, in the form of documentation, testimony by individuals who took part in the activities, or physical evidence, would be required.

Inspections and inspection capabilities in Iraq

12. Since the arrival of the first inspectors in Iraq on 27 November 2002, UNMOVIC has conducted more than 550 inspections covering approximately 350 sites. Of these 44 sites were new sites. All inspections were performed without notice, and access was in virtually all cases provided promptly. In no case have the inspectors seen convincing evidence that the Iraqi side knew in advance of their impending arrival.

13. The inspections have taken place throughout Iraq at industrial sites, ammunition depots, research centres, universities, presidential sites, mobile laboratories, private houses, missile production facilities, military camps and agricultural sites. At all sites, which had been inspected before 1998, re-baselining activities were performed. This included the identification of the function and contents of each building, new or old, at a site. It also included verification of previously tagged equipment, application of seals and tags, evaluation of locations for the future installation of cameras and other monitors, as well as taking samples and discussions with the site personnel regarding past and present activities. At certain sites, ground-penetrating radar was used to look for underground structures or buried equipment. Similar activities were performed at new sites. Inspections are effectively helping to bridge the gap in knowledge that arose due to the absence of inspections between December 1998 and November 2002.

14. More than 200 chemical and more than 100 biological samples have been collected at different sites. Three quarters of these have been screened using UNMOVIC-s own analytical laboratory capabilities at the Baghdad Ongoing Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Centre (BOMVIC). The results to date have been consistent with Iraq-s declarations.

15. UNMOVIC has identified and started the destruction of approximately 50 litres of mustard declared by Iraq that had been placed under UNSCOM supervision and seal at the Muthanna site in 1998. This process will continue. A laboratory quantity (1 litre) of thiodiglycol, a mustard precursor, which had been found at another site, has also been destroyed.

16. Towards the end of February 2003, a juncture when rotation of inspectors is taking place, the number of UNMOVIC personnel in Iraq reached a total of 202 staff from 60 countries. This includes 84 inspectors. In addition, BOMVIC has a team of United Nations translators and interpreters and a logistics and administrative staff. A unit of 10 United Nations security officers ensures the security of BOMVIC offices 24 hours a day. Medical and communication staff has been provided by the Government of New Zealand as a contribution to UNMOVIC operations. The manpower required to refurbish BOMVIC office space at the Canal Hotel was provided by the Government of Switzerland.

17. UNMOVIC air operations are carried out by 1 airplane and 8 helicopters, with a total of 57 air staff. These operations are covered by contracts with four different companies. The L-100 plane, which flies between Larnaca and Baghdad, is under a contract with a South African company. Contracts with Canadian, Russian and United Kingdom companies cover the helicopter assets.

18. With the exception of the crew of the aircraft and the helicopters and the staff provided by the Governments of New Zealand and Switzerland, all UNMOVIC employees of BOMVIC are United Nations staff recruited under the staff rules of the Organization.

19. A field office was opened in Mosul, in the north of Iraq, the first week in January, with the cooperation of Iraqi authorities. This operation base is temporarily located in a hotel with full communications capabilities. There are currently 28 staff at this location. Planning for the setting-up of prefabricated offices at Mosul airport is currently under way. There is a United Nations security team at the field office, and arrangements have been made to ensure medical assistance to the staff.

20. UNMOVIC is in the process of planning for a second field office in Basrah, in the south of Iraq, in March. The Iraqi authorities are providing cooperation to this effect.

21. During the period from 1 December 2002 to 28 February 2003, inspectors have been provided with high technology, state-of-the-art equipment. This includes some 35,000 tamper-proof tags and seals for tagging equipment, 10 enhanced chemical agent monitors (ECAMS), 10 toxic industrial materials detectors (TIMs), 10 chemical monitors (APCC), nuclear, biological and chemical protection (NBC) suits, respirators, dosimeters with reader, a complete chemical laboratory with requisite laboratory supplies and equipment, ground-penetrating radars, 3 portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometers, 12 ultrasonic pulse echo detectors to screen the inside of warheads, equipment for sampling warheads (MONIKA), 3 alloy analysers, and biological detection and screening equipment to include PCR, ELISA, immunoassay and rapid screening technologies. Additionally, UNMOVIC has used its network of accredited laboratories to analyse a sample of missile propellant. Cameras and other surveillance systems are currently in Cyprus awaiting shipment to Baghdad.

22. The Commission-s Larnaca field office has been expanded. It continues to provide essential logistics and other support.

High-level meetings in Baghdad

23. On 19 and 20 January and on 8 and 9 February, the Executive Chairman, together with the Director General of the IAEA, visited Baghdad to discuss relevant inspection and cooperation issues. He was accompanied in these missions by a number of UNMOVIC senior staff and experts.

24. The first meetings in January between the Iraqi side and UNMOVIC and the IAEA were devoted to stocktaking of the inspections which had taken place so far and to resolving certain operational issues. This included the questions of the clarification of the 7 December declaration, provision of documents, the conduct of interviews, air operations, as well as access and Iraqi assistance to the logistic build-up. A joint statement was issued upon conclusion of the talks. While it recorded a number of matters which had been solved, some remained unresolved, such as flights by U-2 surveillance planes, the conduct of interviews, the enactment of national legislation.

25. At the meeting on 8 and 9 February, the Iraqi side addressed some of the important outstanding disarmament issues. A number of papers were handed over to UNMOVIC, regarding unresolved issues in all three disarmament fields. Expert discussions were held to clarify the contents of these papers. However, they did not contain new evidence, nor did they resolve any of the open issues.

26. Other matters discussed included the possibility of verifying, through technical and analytical methods, the quantities of biological agents and chemical precursors, which had been declared unilaterally destroyed; the establishment of Iraqi Commissions to search for proscribed items and relevant documents, the necessity of private interviews, and the enactment of national legislation in accordance with the monitoring plan approved by the Security Council in resolution 715 (1991).


27. In accordance with paragraph 5 of Security Council resolution 1441 (2002), UNMOVIC has the right to conduct, at its sole discretion, interviews with Iraqi officials and other persons with or without the presence of observers from the Iraqi Government, both inside and outside of Iraq. In the review period, UNMOVIC requested 28 individuals to present themselves for interviews in Baghdad (without the presence of observers). At first, none of them agreed. At the meeting on 19-20 January, the Iraqi side committed itself to "encourage" persons to accept interviews "in private". Immediately prior to the next round of discussions, Iraq informed UNMOVIC that three candidates, who had previously declined to be interviewed under UNMOVIC-s terms, had changed their minds. UNMOVIC is currently examining the practical modalities for conducting interviews outside the territory of Iraq.

Missile programmes declared by Iraq

28. In its 7 December declaration and again in its semi-annual monitoring declaration, Iraq declared the development and production of two types of surface-to-surface missiles, which, according to the data presented, were capable of surpassing the range limit imposed on Iraq by Security Council resolution 687 (1991) and had indeed done so in a number of tests. Iraq also declared the acquisition of a large number of surface-to-air missile engines for use, after appropriate modification, in the production of these missiles. This import violates the arms embargo established by the Council in paragraph 24 of resolution 687 (1991).

29. UNMOVIC staff have evaluated and assessed these missile projects - the Al Samoud 2 and the Al Fatah. It has also sought the assessment of a panel of international experts on the matter. To that end, a meeting took place on 10-11 February at United Nations Headquarters with experts from China, France, Germany, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ukraine and the United States of America. The Russian expert nominated was unable to attend.

30. As a result of these assessments, it was concluded that all variants of the Al Samoud 2 missile were inherently capable of ranges of more than 150 kilometres and were therefore proscribed weapons systems.

31. The panel found that clarification of the Al Fatah missile data supplied by Iraq was required before the capability of the missile system could be assessed. UNMOVIC will request such clarification.

32. UNMOVIC inspection teams proceeded to tag the Al Samoud 2 missiles, as well as related missile components, such as engines.

33. The experts also reviewed the capabilities of casting chambers at the Al Mamoun facility. These had previously been destroyed under UNSCOM supervision since they were intended for use in the production of the proscribed Badr-2000 missile, but had subsequently been refurbished by Iraq. The experts concluded that these reconstituted chambers could still be used to produce motors for missiles capable of ranges significantly greater than 150 kilometres. Accordingly, these chambers remain proscribed.

34. On 21 February, UNMOVIC, in accordance with relevant resolutions, directed Iraq to destroy the proscribed missile system and the reconstituted casting chambers. The destruction process is to commence by 1 March.

Aerial operations

35. Subsequent to the high-level discussions on 8 and 9 February, on 10 February, the Government of Iraq formally accepted UNMOVIC-s use of aerial surveillance platforms and undertook to take the necessary measures to ensure their safety.

36. The first such flight was conducted by a high-altitude U-2 surveillance aircraft on 17 February. This aircraft has conducted further flights. The missions are flown by the United States on behalf of UNMOVIC. A Mirage IV medium-altitude surveillance aircraft, flown on behalf of UNMOVIC by the Government of France, undertook its first mission on 26 February. The two aircraft can provide a number of different types of imagery and both are able to provide digital imagery to UNMOVIC in New York within a few hours of the missions taking place. UNMOVIC is currently discussing the use of a Russian AN-30 surveillance aircraft and German unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to supplement its aerial surveillance platforms. UNMOVIC already has eight helicopters stationed in Iraq, as well as access to satellite imagery.

37. The increased capability for aerial surveillance through these new platforms provides UNMOVIC and the IAEA with additional tools to strengthen their operations and to verify Iraq-s compliance with its obligations.

Other developments

38. In December, UNMOVIC asked Iraq to provide, under the fourth subparagraph of paragraph 7 of resolution 1441 (2002), the names of all personnel currently or formerly associated with some aspects of Iraq-s programme of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles. The Iraqi response was received at the end of December. However, it was deemed to be inadequate, as it did not even include all those who had been previously listed in Iraq-s full, final and complete declaration. Iraq has since then supplemented its list of participants in the missile programme, and has declared itself to be ready to do the same in the other disciplines. This matter is still being followed up.

39. On 14 January, UNMOVIC received from the National Monitoring Directorate Iraq-s semi-annual monitoring declaration for the period from July 2002 to January 2003.

40. On 16 January, UNMOVIC chemical experts inspecting the Al Ukhaidhir military stores, discovered a number of empty 122-mm chemical munitions. The munitions have been tagged pending their destruction.

41. Following this discovery, Iraq appointed a commission of inquiry to undertake an investigation and comprehensive search for similar cases at all locations. One find of four more empty 122-mm chemical munitions was reported by that commission at Al Taji munitions stores. Subsequently, UNMOVIC inspectors found two more such munitions at the same site. These six munitions will also be destroyed.

42. Later in January, Iraq expanded the mandate of the commission to search for any remaining proscribed items on Iraqi territory. A second commission was appointed with the task of searching for any documents relevant to the proscribed items and programmes. It is headed by the former Minister of Oil, General Amer Rashid, and has extensive powers of search in industry, administration and private houses.

43. On 21 and 25 February, Iraq informed UNMOVIC that two complete R-400 aerial bombs (one of which had liquid contents), plus remnants of what it states were 118 R-400 bombs, had been excavated at Azzizziyah, the declared unilateral destruction site of BW-filled aerial bombs, along with some related components and remnants of other destroyed munitions. UNMOVIC inspectors are currently investigating these finds.

44. In the course of February, the Iraqi side transmitted to UNMOVIC lists of persons involved in the unilateral destruction during the summer of 1991 in the chemical, biological and missile fields.

45. After repeated requests by UNMOVIC and the IAEA for national implementing legislation, a presidential decree was issued in Baghdad on 14 February, containing prohibitions for persons and companies in the private and mixed sectors against the production or import of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons. UNMOVIC is requesting clarification of the decree and enquiring whether further legislative actions will follow.


46. As at the end of February 2003, UNMOVIC core staff in the Professional grades at Headquarters comprised 75 persons (of 30 nationalities). Thirteen members of the staff are women.


47. UNMOVIC has continued to attach high priority to the training of staff and potential staff.

48. UNMOVIC conducted its seventh basic training course in Vienna from 20 January to 7 February for 59 selected experts from 22 countries. This brings the total number of persons trained by UNMOVIC to 380, including 49 staff members from Headquarters. They comprise 55 nationalities. Further training courses are envisaged.

49. The Commission is grateful to those Member States that have supported the training activities.

Non-inspection sources of information

50. With the commencement of inspections in Iraq on 27 November, the pace of work of the Office for Outside Information increased substantially. Countries that had supplied intelligence-related information to UNMOVIC in the previous two years were again contacted in an effort to obtain new up-to-date intelligence to assist in the inspection programme. Also, additional countries were contacted in an effort to expand the base of knowledge currently available. To date, approximately a dozen countries have provided information of potential relevance to UNMOVIC-s mandate. Much of that information has been utilized in conducting inspections in Iraq.

51. The Open Sources Officer has continued efforts to research and make available to UNMOVIC information relating to Iraq-s industrial infrastructure that could be used in the production of prohibited weapons. In addition, there is a large volume of public information available suggesting procurement of items by Iraq that could have a dual-use capability.


52. The inspectors were provided with the capabilities for clear and secure voice transmission from and within the mission area utilizing state-of-the-art equipment. The network is completely independent of the Iraqi public network. The telecommunications network, both voice and data, has a built-in redundancy and allows for future expansion. This redundancy is achieved by routing connections via two different satellite carriers.

53. The inspectors have INMARSAT devices and Thuraya satellite phones. Thurayas are used to establish communication from the field. The INMARSAT is being used for the field operations and also as a back-up in the regional offices. Each inspector was provided with a VHF radio and the VHF coverage extends about 80 kilometres around Baghdad. Long-range high-frequency stations were installed in the BOMVIC, the regional office in Mosul, the Office in Larnaca and the Al Rasheed air base.

Goods Review List

54. On 5 December, in resolution 1447 (2002), the Security Council renewed the "Oil-for-Food" programme for a further 180 days. The resolution also required that a review of the Goods Review List (GRL) and its procedures be completed by 3 January 2003. Discussions took place during December and the agreed changes were endorsed in resolution 1454 (2002) on 30 December. The changes dealt with additions to the GRL to include, for example, Global Positioning System (GPS) jammers and all-terrain tyres and amendments to the entries on trucks and trailers/low loaders. As a result of the amendments, UNMOVIC performed a reassessment exercise that involved the review of 200 contracts to check if they still contained items on the GRL in the light of the revised lists.

55. Resolution 1454 (2002) also revised the GRL procedures. The Office of the Iraq Programme (OIP) is required to establish consumption levels for certain specific materials by 1 March. For contracts containing items below these consumption levels, approval is vested in OIP. If the consumption level is exceeded, further exports of these goods will require approval by the sanctions Committee established pursuant to Security Council resolution 661 (1990). Examples of goods subject to this new procedure include atropine, selected pesticides, growth media and certain types of antibiotics.

56. The GRL procedures were also expanded for UNMOVIC and the IAEA. Both organizations are now required to keep records of certain types of materials and equipment, which could be considered for incorporation into the GRL at 90-day review points.

College of Commissioners

57. On 19 December, following the resignation, in the autumn of 2002, of Ms. Malmi Marjatta Rautio (Finland), the Secretary-General, in consultation with the members of the Security Council and the Executive Chairman, appointed Ms. Olga Pellicer (Mexico) as a member of the College of Commissioners.

58. Special sessions of the College of Commissioners were held at United Nations Headquarters on 23 January and 12 February. The Executive Chairman gave the Commissioners a report on the work of UNMOVIC since the previous sessions of the College, and on the discussions held in Baghdad on 19-20 January and on 8-9 February, respectively, as well as on recent developments with respect to the Security Council-s deliberations on Iraq.

59. The College held its twelfth regular plenary session at United Nations Headquarters on 24 and 25 February. In addition to the members of the College, observers from the IAEA and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons attended.

60. The Chairman reported on developments during the period under review.

61. The College commended the Chairman for his recent reports and briefings to the Security Council. The College also discussed a draft paper prepared by UNMOVIC outlining clusters of unresolved disarmament issues. The College welcomed the draft paper and commended it for its approach, in particular, its indication of actions Iraq could take to help to resolve particular issues, which could be successful only if Iraq provided immediate, unconditional and active cooperation. The draft paper would serve as an important source for the selection of the key remaining disarmament tasks called for in resolution 1284 (1999) and would be updated on a continuous basis as new information became available, including especially for the period 1998 to the present.

62. It was agreed that Commissioners be afforded time until 3 March for submitting any further comments they wished taken into account in the finalization of the paper.

63. It was decided to hold the next quarterly session on 28 and 29 May.

64. In accordance with paragraph 5 of resolution 1284 (1999), the Commissioners were consulted on the contents of the present report.


65. After three months of inspections, it may be legitimate to ask about results. First, has UNMOVIC come up to its full potential yet? Second, has Iraq cooperated, as required, and has disarmament been achieved?

66. The paragraphs above provide a description of the more important elements in UNMOVIC-s work to establish and develop an effective inspection regime to verify that Iraq is free from, or being freed from, all weapons of mass destruction and other proscribed items - disarmament.

  • UNMOVIC has, in most areas, more resources and more advanced tools at its disposal than did UNSCOM and, in several respects, UNMOVIC has developed a capacity that goes beyond what was contemplated in its initial planning, e.g., in the number of personnel, number of teams in the field, number of sites visited. Yet, it could certainly further expand and strengthen its activity, e.g., in some form of controls of vehicles. Member States could also provide further support and assistance, notably in the field of information.
  • UNMOVIC is presently finalizing an internal document of some importance, namely, a list of the disarmament issues, which it considers currently unresolved, and of the measures which Iraq could take to resolve them, either by presenting proscribed stocks and items or by providing convincing evidence that such stocks or items no longer exist. The list, which in condensed form traces the history of clusters of weapons issues, has been prepared with a view to allowing UNMOVIC to perform its tasks under resolution 1284 (1999) to "address unresolved disarmament issues" and to identify "key remaining disarmament tasks". It could also serve as a yardstick against which Iraq-s disarmament actions under resolution 1441 (2002) may be measured.

67. The paragraphs above further describe the actions taken by Iraq to respond to the obligations laid upon it in the relevant resolutions. Several of these are specific, as the obligation under resolution 1441 (2002) to provide a declaration 30 days after the adoption of the resolution. However, there is further the general obligation, prescribed in that resolution, to cooperate "immediately, unconditionally and actively" and the similar earlier requirement, in resolution 1284 (1999), for "cooperation in all respects". Has Iraq provided such cooperation and has it led to disarmament?

68. In comments on this question, a distinction has been made between cooperation on "process" and cooperation on "substance". UNMOVIC has reported that, in general, Iraq has been helpful on "process", meaning, first of all, that Iraq has from the outset satisfied the demand for prompt access to any site, whether or not it had been previously declared or inspected. There have thus been no sanctuaries in space. Nor have there been any sanctuaries in time, as inspections have taken place on holidays as on weekdays. While such cooperation should be a matter of course, it must be recalled that UNSCOM frequently met with a different Iraqi attitude.

69. Iraq has further been helpful in getting UNMOVIC established on the ground, in developing the necessary infrastructure for communications, transport and accommodation. Help has been given by the Iraqi side when needed for excavation and other operations. Iraqi staff has been provided, sometimes in excessive numbers, as escorts for the inspection teams. There have been minor frictions, e.g., demonstrations against inspectors and Iraqi criticism of some questions put by inspectors in the field.

70. A number of other actions might be discussed under the heading "cooperation on process":

(a) After some initial difficulties with Iraq relating to escorting flights into the no-fly zones, UNMOVIC helicopters have been able to operate as requested both for transport and inspection purposes;

(b) After some initial difficulties raised by Iraq, UNMOVIC has been able to send surveillance aircraft over the entire territory of Iraq in a manner similar to that of UNSCOM;

(c) The Iraqi commission established to search for and present any proscribed items is potentially a mechanism of importance. It should, indeed, do the job that inspectors should not have to do, namely, tracing any remaining stocks or pieces of proscribed items anywhere in Iraq. Although appointed around 20 January, it has so far reported only a few findings: four empty 122-mm chemical munitions and, recently, two BW aerial bombs and some associated components;

(d) The second Iraqi commission established to search for relevant documents could also be of importance, as lack of documentation or other evidence is the most common reason why quantities of items are deemed unaccounted for. Iraq has recently reported to UNMOVIC that the Commission had found documents concerning Iraq-s unilateral destruction of proscribed items. As of the submission of this report, the documents are being examined;

(e) The list of names of personnel reported to have taken part in the unilateral destruction of biological and chemical weapons and missiles in 1991 will open the possibility for interviews, which, if credible, might shed light on the scope of the unilateral actions. Such interviews will soon be organized. Before this has occurred and an evaluation is made of the results, it is not possible to know whether they will prove to be a successful way to reduce uncertainty about the quantities unilaterally destroyed;

(f) Iraq has proposed a scientific technical procedure to measure quantities of proscribed liquid items disposed of in 1991. UNMOVIC experts are not very hopeful that these methods will bring meaningful results and will discuss this matter with Iraq in early March in Baghdad;

(g) It has not yet proved possible to obtain interviews with Iraqi scientists, managers or others believed to have knowledge relevant to the disarmament tasks in circumstances that give satisfactory credibility. The Iraqi side reports that it encourages interviewees to accept such interviews, but the reality is that, so far, no persons not nominated by the Iraqi side have been willing to be interviewed without a tape recorder running or an Iraqi witness present.

71. Cooperation on substance

(a) The declaration of 7 December, despite the hopes attached to it and despite its large volume, has not been found to provide new evidence or data that may help to resolve outstanding disarmament issues. As has been mentioned above, it did, however, usefully shed light on the developments in the missile sector and in the sector of non-proscribed biological activities in the period 1998-2002;

(b) The destruction of some items, e.g., small known quantities of mustard, is taking place under UNMOVIC supervision and further such action will take place, e.g., as regards the empty 122-mm chemical munitions;

(c) Iraq has identified two aerial R-400 bombs, as well as remnants of what it states to be 118 R-400 bombs, at Azzizziyah;

(d) The destruction of Al Samoud 2 missiles and related items declared by Iraq but found proscribed under the relevant resolutions has been requested and is due to commence on 1 March. Iraqi cooperation is essential;

(e) The presidential decree, which was issued on 14 February and which prohibits private Iraqi citizens and mixed companies from engaging in work relating to weapons of mass destruction, standing alone, is not adequate to meet the United Nations requirements. UNMOVIC has enquired whether a comprehensive regulation is being prepared in line with several years of discussions between Iraq and UNSCOM/UNMOVIC.

72. Under resolution 1284 (1999), Iraq is to provide "cooperation in all respects" to UNMOVIC and the IAEA. While the objective of the cooperation under this resolution, as under resolution 1441 (2002), is evidently the attainment, without delay, of verified disarmament, it is the cooperation that must be immediate, unconditional and active. Without the required cooperation, disarmament and its verification will be problematic. However, even with the requisite cooperation it will inevitably require some time.

73. During the period of time covered by the present report, Iraq could have made greater efforts to find any remaining proscribed items or provide credible evidence showing the absence of such items. The results in terms of disarmament have been very limited so far. The destruction of missiles, which is an important operation, has not yet begun. Iraq could have made full use of the declaration, which was submitted on 7 December. It is hard to understand why a number of the measures, which are now being taken, could not have been initiated earlier. If they had been taken earlier, they might have borne fruit by now. It is only by the middle of January and thereafter that Iraq has taken a number of steps, which have the potential of resulting either in the presentation for destruction of stocks or items that are proscribed or the presentation of relevant evidence solving long-standing unresolved disarmament issues.